Vue d'artiste des vents galactiques produits par un trou noir supermassif situé au centre d'une galaxie. L'énergie intense émanant du trou noir crée un flux de gaz à l'échelle de la galaxie qui souffle la matière interstellaire qui est le matériau de formation des étoiles. © Alma (ESO NAOJ, NRAO)

Alma and the Subaru Telescope on the trail of the enigmatic killers of the primordial galaxies

Nearly a century ago, he entered Yerkes Observatory where he wrote a remarkable thesis on nebulae that earned him a place at…” data-image=” buildsv6/images/midioriginal /7 /a/5/7a55fb5c4d_50142198_hubble-700.jpg” data-url=”” data-more= “Read more”>edwin hubble opened the kingdom of galaxies showing that nebulae in the famous astronomer’s catalog Charles Messieras Messier 31 and Messy 87they were actually objects outside of From Earth, you can only see a cross section…” data-image=” /7/7/ 777b761907_120668_milkyway -galaxy.jpg” data-url=”” data-more=”Read more” >Milky Way and that therefore they must be like him Universes-islands, in the sense of Kant in a pamphlet of 1755, that is to say groups of stars identical to the stellar system that we call the Milky Way, our Galaxy.

M31 and M87also known as the andromeda galaxies and The passage of a…” data-url=”” data-more=”Read more”>Virgo A, they are what are known to be from the works of Irish astronomer Lord Rosse mid 19me century, examples of spiral and elliptical galaxies respectively. But it will take longer to find out if in the first case the galaxy still contains gas and dust in cloud formation.
The quantity…” data-image=”” data -url=”” data-more=”Read more”>clouds molecules where stellar nurseries are formed, it is not the case of M87 that is impoverished in these organic matter, nitrogenous matter, etc.
There are different families like:

organic matter, which constitutes living beings (animals or plants) or…” data-image=” jpg” data-url=”” data-more=”Read more”>materials and where star formation is weak.

Jean-Pierre Luminet, director of research at the CNRS, and Françoise Combes, professor at the Collège de France, tell us about black holes, in particular the large supermassive black holes in the galaxies that are behind the quasars and that impact the galaxy evolution. © Hugot Foundation of the College de France

A co-evolution of supermassive black holes and galaxies

It will also be long after Messier and Rosse discover that M87 and the Milky Way contain supermassive black holes and that it is as general a situation as the division of galaxies into two main classes, viz., spirals and ellipticals. However, in many cases there is a proportional relationship between the mass of a galaxy and that of the supermassive black hole it houses. and like the greats elliptical galaxies are also devoid of gas and dust and contain three very large supermassive blacks, we suspect a relationship between the growth processes of the galaxies and those of the supermassive black holes they contain, as well as a causal relationship between the presence of these monsters and the death of the galaxies.

However, nothing is perfectly clear yet on all these issues, even if for a decade the paradigm of the growth of galaxies via Filaments of cold gases, channeled by filaments of dark matter, cast a bright light on them, cosmologist Romain Teyssier explained to Futura..

We observe, for example, that not only have we been able to observe dead elliptical galaxies for more than 10 billion years where stars are no longer forming, but we really do not know why certain galaxies are already empty of molecular gas at the origin of the star formation and others do not. However, it is assumed that this has something to do with the activity of supermassive black holes that accumulate matter and produce in response winds matter and bursts of radiation expelling the gas and dust they contain.

the astrophysicists try to solve these puzzles in various ways and of course based on observations. We have further proof of this with an article published in the Astrophysical Journal, which can be freely consulted at arXiv. It comes from the work of an international team of researchers led by Kei Ito at Sokendai, Japan, who used the database of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (Cosmos), an astronomical survey designed to probe the formation and evolution of galaxies as a function of cosmic time (red shift) and the local environment of galaxies. The study covers an equatorial field of 2 square degrees with spectroscopy and images ranging from the domain of X-rays to the waves radio thanks to most major telescopes space and a series of large telescopes on the floor. More than 2 million galaxies are detected, covering 75% of the age of theUniverse.

Correlations already present 10 billion years ago

In this case, Ito and his colleagues used a sample of galaxies between 9.5 and 12.5 billion miles away.Light years of the Milky Way as seen by the world’s largest telescopes, including theAtacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (Soul) and the Subaru Telescope. The team first used optical data and infrared identify two groups of galaxies: those where star formation is in progress and those where star formation has stopped.

To achieve their goal, the astrophysicists also needed data collected in the field of Invented in 1895 by Wilhelm Röntgen
X-ray invention
The discovery of…” data-image=” jpg” data-url=”” data-more=”Read more”>X-rays and waves radiobut since these data are much noisier and more degraded, it was necessary to exploit them, have a greater number of observations and make averages to draw a clearer and more usable signal.

By combining observations of already identified galaxies in the visible and infrared with those in the X and radio domain, researchers have for the first time associated emissions in these last two domains to galaxies located more than 10,000 million light years away. So we can see galaxies containing supermassive black holes associated with galaxies with or without star formation because the X-ray and radio emissions are too strong to be explained by the stars in the galaxy alone, indicating the presence of a supermassive black hole. active.

Then we clearly see that galaxies with a giant black hole that is not very active, therefore accumulate little matter and have to produce a weak burst of radiation as a result (remember that according to Maxwell’s laws it has been shown that electromagnetic waves, including light, allow the propagation, at finite speed, of electric and magnetic fields. The existence of an absolute medium called ether, necessary for this propagation, was refuted by the theory of relativity.” data-url=”https: //” data-more=”Read the definition”>electromagnetic field the waves it can form carry light amount of movement such as particles of matter in a gas flow), are also those where star formation is significant.

It is equally clear that an abrupt end to star formation in the history of the universe begins about 13.7 billion years ago in an extremely dense and hot soup. The laws of physics like us…” data-image=”” data-url= “https : //” data-more=”Read more”>Universe primordial correlates with increased activity of supermassive black holes. In a statement from Subaru Telescope, Kei Ito summarizes the situation as follows: We have successfully detected black hole activity inside dying galaxies, even in the distant Universe, by combining intensive observations from large telescopes around the world, including the Subaru Telescope. This result of the observations is important to understand why they stop their star formation. It suggests the possibility that supermassive black holes impede the growth of galaxies. However, we still do not know the mechanism. To understand the process, the team will investigate further. »

Françoise Combes, professor at the Collège de France, tells us in more detail about supermassive black holes. © Ecole Normale Supérieure, PSL

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